Use of feedback
- internal (intrinsic) feedback
- external (extrinsic) feedback
- feedback mode
- feedback content
- knowledge of results(KR)
- knowledge of performance (KP)
- feedback schedule
Timing / frequency of feedback
Task acquisition and retention for four different feedback schedules:
graph adapted from:
Winstein, C.J. (1991). Designing practice for motor learning: Clinical implications. In M.J. Lister (Ed.), Contemporary Management of Motor Control Problems: Proceedings
of the II-STEP Conference (pp. 65-76). Alexandria, VA: Foundation for Physical Therapy.
Summary feedback resulted in poorer short-term acquisition but better retention than continuous (SUM=1) feedback.
Schmidt, R.A., Young, D.E., Swinnen, S., & Shapiro, D.C. (1989). Summary knowledge of results for skill acquisition: Support for the guidance hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 15, 352-359.
A therapist may inform a patient of an error in movement only when it falls outside some "predetermined band of correctness" (Schmidt, 1991, p. 58) or "window of acceptable performance" (Winstein, 1991, p.145). Motor learning researchers refer to this "window" as a bandwidth. When patients make small errors, they receive no feedback. Patients who perform more accurately over time receive less frequent feedback, so that the use of bandwidth feedback often results in a feedback schedule that is "faded."
Schmidt, R.A. (1991). Motor learning principles for physical therapy. In:
Foundation for Physical Therapy. Contemporary management of motor control problems: Proceedings of the II-STEP conference. Alexandria, VA: Foundation for Physical Therapy.
Winstein, C.J. (1991). Knowledge of results and motor learning - implications for physical therapy. Physical Therapy, 71, 140-149.