Joint Structures
Close packed positions
Images: anterior shoulder anatomy

Joint Structures:

Arthrokinematics of the glenohumeral joint
during glenohumeral abduction:

Close-packed positions of the GH joint:

  1. horizontal abduction and external rotation (Hertling & Kessler, 1996)
  2. flexion and internal rotation (Culham & Peat, 1993)


Culham, E. & Peat, M. (1993). Functional anatomy of the shoulder complex. Journal of Orthopedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 18, 342-350.

Hertling, D., & Kessler, R. M. (1996). Management of common musculoskeletal disorders: Physical therapy principles and methods. (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott.

Palmer, M. L. & Blakely, R. L. (1986). Documentation of medial rotation accompanying shoulder flexion. A case report. Physical Therapy, 66, 55-58.

Last updated 11-8-01 ©Dave Thompson PT
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