Norkin, C.C., & White, D. J. (1995). Measurement of joint motion: A guide to goniometry (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: F. A. Davis.
Identify the three axes of the acetabulo-femoral (hip) joint:
Identify the two axes of the tibio-femoral (knee) joint (Norkin & White, 1995, p. 137; Smith, Weiss, & Lehmkuhl, 1996, Fig. 9-3, p. 305):
Identify the lateral axis of the talocrural (ankle) joint (Norkin & White, 1995, p. 147; Smith, Weiss, & Lehmkuhl, Fig. 10-2, p.337).
Analyze one joint (hip, knee, ankle)
and one relevant plane of motion (sagittal, frontal, transverse)
at a time.
You can experiment with one or more of the activities by performing them in front of an overhead project, so your shadow forms a planar image on a screen. By positioning yourself so that your shadow projects onto a sagittal plane, you can analyze flexion and extension while ignoring motions in the other two planes. You can do the same to analyze frontal plane movements like abduction and adduction.
After total hip replacement surgery, therapists warn patients to avoid internal rotation of the affected hip joint, especially in combination with hip adduction and flexion. Internal rotation stresses the ligaments that the surgeon incised and repaired during the procedure and, if sufficiently extreme or rapid, can dislocate the joint. Therefore, when therapists teach people to use walkers after hip replacement (arthroplasty) surgery, they emphasize that it is more prudent and safe to turn _____.