Planes and axes of motion - Lab 2

Each lab group needs:
  1. We study each of the body's joints by first identifying the joint's axis or axes.

    Identify the three axes of the acetabulo-femoral (hip) joint:

    1. lateral (transverse) axis (Norkin & White, 1995, p. 119; Smith, Weiss, & Lehmkuhl, 1996, p. 276)
    2. anterior-posterior (AP or horizontal) axis (Norkin & White, 1995; p. 119; Smith, Weiss, & Lehmkuhl, 1996, p. 276-277)
    3. longitudinal axis, also known as "mechanical axis of femur" (Kendall, McCreary, & Provance, 1993, p. 230; Norkin & White, 1995, p. 119; Smith, Weiss, & Lehmkuhl, Fig. 8-9, p.278)

    Identify the two axes of the tibio-femoral (knee) joint (Norkin & White, 1995, p. 137; Smith, Weiss, & Lehmkuhl, 1996, Fig. 9-3, p. 305):

    1. lateral axis
    2. longitudinal axis

    Identify the lateral axis of the talocrural (ankle) joint (Norkin & White, 1995, p. 147; Smith, Weiss, & Lehmkuhl, Fig. 10-2, p.337).

  2. Review the names of the movements, and the planes in which they occur, around each axis of the hip , tibio-femoral (knee), and talocrural (ankle) joints.

  3. Describe the listed activities in terms of

    • the lower extremity joints at which motion occurs
    • the joint axes around which motion occurs
    • the names of the joint motions, and the anatomical planes in which they occur.

    The activities:

    • stepping sideways over a six-inch space (Lab instructors will use masking tape to mark the floor for this activity.)
    • sitting in a chair from standing, then arising to stand again
    • descending a flight of stairs
    • taking off, or putting on, pants or shorts (Be discrete.)
    • taking off, or putting on, shoes and socks

    Analyze one joint (hip, knee, ankle)
    and one relevant plane of motion (sagittal, frontal, transverse)
    at a time.

    You can experiment with one or more of the activities by performing them in front of an overhead project, so your shadow forms a planar image on a screen. By positioning yourself so that your shadow projects onto a sagittal plane, you can analyze flexion and extension while ignoring motions in the other two planes. You can do the same to analyze frontal plane movements like abduction and adduction.

  4. Consider:

    After total hip replacement surgery, therapists warn patients to avoid internal rotation of the affected hip joint, especially in combination with hip adduction and flexion. Internal rotation stresses the ligaments that the surgeon incised and repaired during the procedure and, if sufficiently extreme or rapid, can dislocate the joint. Therefore, when therapists teach people to use walkers after hip replacement (arthroplasty) surgery, they emphasize that it is more prudent and safe to turn _____.

    choose one:
    1. toward the side on which the patient had the surgery.
    2. toward the uninvolved side.

Last updated 8-31-01 Dave Thompson PT
return to OCTH/PHTH 7143 lab schedule