Reading for Control of Human Movement 2:
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The ACSM's prescription guidelines differ from older Delorme and Oxford strengthening protocols.
Repetition maximum (RM): "maximal number of times a load can be lifted before fatigue using good form and technique (ACSM, 1998)." A "1RM" signifies the maximum resistance a person can move in one repetition of an exercise.
The ACSM recommends exercising at an intensity of 8 to 12 RM. Two classic strengthening protocols (Arnheim & Prentice, 1993) require a person to determine the 10RM for a given exercise, and then to perform several sets of the exercise:
The formula permits one to "assess muscular strength in a safe, efficient manner ... [without requiring] clients to attempt maximum lifts " (Brzycki, 2000). Brzycki's equation predicts the 1 RM in a bench press more accurately than competing formulas, as long as its estimate is based on ten or fewer repetitions (Mayhew, Prinster, Ware, Zimmer, Arabas, & Bemben, 1995).
Brzycki's equation also estimates loads for a "nRM" as a percentage of the 1RM:
The estimated load for a
is _____ percent of a 1 RM
An online calculator programmed for Brzycki's equation
Strength gains that occur in the first two to three weeks of an exercise program are due to functional changes. Structural changes take longer.
More flexible muscles may develop greater force during the SSC because:
Compliant muscles, muscles that are relatively less stiff and more flexible "enhance the use of elastic strain energy in SSC [stretch shorten cycle] movements, for at a given value of applied force, a more compliant elastic system will extend to a greater distance, consequently storing more strain energy as compared with the stiffer ... system" (Wilson, Elliott, & Wood, 1992, p. 116).
Arnheim, D. D., & Prentice, W. E. (1993). Principles of athletic training. St. Louis: Mosby.
Benn, C., Forman, K., Mathewson, D., Tapply, M., Tiskus, S., Whang, K., & Blanpied, P. (1998). The effects of serial stretch loading on stretch work and stretch-shorten cycle performance in the knee musculature. Journal of Orthopedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 27, 412-22.
Brzycki, M. (1993). Strength testing - Predicting a one-rep max from a reps-to-fatigue. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance 64 (1), 88-90.
Brzycki, M. (June, 2000). Assessing strength. Fitness Management. Retrieved April 13, 2001, from the World Wide Web: http://www.fitnessworld.com/info/info_pages/library/strength/assess0600.html
Feigenbaum, M. S., & Pollock, M.L. (1997). Strength training: Rationale for current guidelines for adult fitness programs. Physician and Sportsmedicine, 25, 44-64.
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Mayhew, J.L., Prinster, J.L., Ware, J.S., Zimmer, D.L., Arabas, J.R., & Bemben, M.G. (1995). Muscular endurance repetitions to predict bench press strength in men of different training levels. Journal of Sports Medicine & Physical Fitness. 35(2), 108-13.
Sale, D.G. (1988). Neural adaptation to resistance training. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 20, S135-45.
Wilson, G.J., Elliott, B.C., & Wood, G.A. (1992). Stretch shorten cycle performance enhancement through flexibility training. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 24, 116-123.